Explanation of Technical Terms

 

Albuminuria     

  

 

increased elimination of albumine (=protein molecules) in urine which serves as an indicator of nephropathy

 

 

Angiopathy

 

 

general term for damage of blood vessels (veins, arteria, capillaries)

 

 

Audio-Bolus

 

 

optimal feature of an insulin pump to enable the user to program a bolus dose in a safe way without looking at the display of the pump. The Audio-Bolus of the Animas insulin pump can be set in levels of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 or 5.0 units. The pump gives acoustic or vibration feedback to control insulin dose delivered into the body

 

 

Basal rate

 

 

rate of continuously delivered insulin in units per hour. Depending on the type of pump they are able to deliver up to 48 different basal rates, starting every hour or every half hour

 

 

Betacells

 

 

 

cells in the pancreas which produce insulin

 

 

BMI

 

 

Body Mass Index. Measure for jugding body weight. Values below 19 are too low, values above 25 too high. BMI = body weigth in kg divided through (body height in m)2

 

 

Bolus

 

 

dose of insulin which is delivered before or during a meal to cover glucose from the food or to lower elevated blood glucose levels

 

 

Carbohydrates

 

 

source of energy from the food which is digested to glucose to increase blood sugar levels. A balanced diet should consist of minimum 50% carbohydrates

 

 

Conventional Insulin Therapy

 

 

type of therapy where the patient gets mixed insulin (short and long acting insulin in one vial) twice a day

 

 

CSII

 

 

abbreviation for continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. This describes insulin therapy by means of an insulin pump

 

 

DCCT

 

 

Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. A long-term study over 10 years regarding type 1 diabetes which was pubished 1993

 

 

Diabetic Foot Syndrome (DFS)

 

 

damage of nerves and blood vessels in the feet lead to DFS (refer also to diabetic polyneuropathy)

 

 

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)      

 

 

metabolic complication resulting from high concentration of ketones in the body. It is mostly associated with high blood sugar levels. DKA is diagnosed by checking ketones in urine or blood. The symptoms are thurst, nausea, excessive amounts of urine, smell of acetone from mouth and skin etc. It can lead to death if not treated immediately

 

 

Diabetes mellitus

 

 

metabolic disease where the pancreas produce no or not enough insulin

 

 

Diabetic Polyneuropathy

 

 

damage of the nerves caused by diabetes. Chronically poorly controlled diabetes leads to damage of the nerve cells and of blood vessels nourishing the nerves

 

 

Gastroparesis

 

 

diabetes complication which results in delayed digestion. The effect of insulin is therefore unforeseeable which could lead to hypoglycemia if insulin acts before carbohydrates are resorbed. Insulin pumps provide the feature “square wave” bolus to distribute the delivery of insulin over a certain programmed period of time to minimize danger of a gastroparesis induced hypoglycaemia

 

 

Gestational diabetes

 

 

diabetes which occurs only during pregnancy. 1 – 5% of all pregnants develop gestational diabetes which disappears normally after birth

 

 

Glucose

 

 

is checked when measuring blood glucose. It is provided to the body through the carbohydrates of the food and presents the most important source of energy to the organism

 

 

Glycohemoglobin, Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)

 

 

glucose molecules which are connected to haemoglobin (=glycated). The higher blood glucose levels are the more glucose is connected to hemoglobin. HbA1c levels serve therefore as a marker of average blood glucose levels of the last two or three months and present a good overview over blood glucose control. Another name for HbA1c is “memory of blood glucose

 

 

Hyperglycemia

 

 

elevated blood glucose

 

 

Hypoglycemia

 

 

 

low blood glucose. Can be caused by high insulin levels, sports or reduced intake of food. Cardrivers with a hypoglycaemic episode have an increased risk for accidents. Severe hypoglycaemia can lead to coma, convulsions and death

 

 

Hypoglycemia Unawareness

 

 

some diabetics have problems to discover symptoms of a hypoglycaemia in time. This is common when people suffer from diabetes for a very long time or have frequent episodes of hypoglycaemia

 

 

Impaired glucose tolerance

 

 

elevated blood glucose levels after a special glucose burden. Blood glucose levels are in between the range of non-diabetic and diabetic individuals

 

 

Infusion set

 

 

delivers insulin from the insulin pump to the body. It consists of a tubing, a Luer adapter (mostly) and a cannula made of steel or Teflon

 

 

Insulin

 

 

hormon that is produced in the pancreas. Helps the body to metabolize glucose

 

 

Insulin analogues

 

 

there are 2 types: short acting insulin modifications which have an immediate effect which lasts up to two hours. These are mostly used in insulin pumps as they work without time delay and can therefore be dosed exactly. Long acting insulins have an increased action over a longer period of time

 

 

Intensified insulin therapy (ICT)

 

 

multiple injections per day require frequent blood glucose tests per day. Insulin delivery is split into basal and bolus doses (Basis-Bolus-Therapy, FIT Therapy)

 

 

Ketones

 

 

side products of fat metabolism which occur in hyperglycaemic conditions or poor resorption of carbohydrates

 

 

Pancreas

 

 

insulin is produced in the pancreas

 

 

Meal bolus

 

 

 

refer to Bolus

 

 

mg/dl

 

 

milligram per decilitre. Unit for measuring blood sugar in some countries

 

 

mmol/l

 

 

millimol per litre. Unit for measuring blood sugar in some countries

 

 

Neuropathy

 

 

disease or damage of the nerves. Very common late complication of diabetes. Refer also to Diabetic Polyneuropathy  

 

 

Nephropathy

 

 

disease of the kidneys. Common late complication of diabetes. Starts with limited kidney function and can lead to complete renal failure

 

 

Oral antidiabetic drugs (OAD)

 

 

medication of tablets which lower blood sugar

 

 

Regular insulin

 

 

quick acting insulin. Starts acting after 15 to 30 minutes after injection and works for about 4 to 6 hours. For insulin pumps regular insulin or short acting analogues are used

 

 

Retinopathy

 

 

disease of the retina. Common late complication of diabetes. Leads to impaired vision or even to blindness

 

 

Saint-Vincent-Declaration

 

 

at the European Diabetes conference in St. Vincente (Italy) in the year 1989 requirements were declared leading to a reduction of diabetes-related late complications within 5 years

 

 

Subcutaneous

 

 

means „under the skin“ (in comparison to intravenous for „in the vein“ or intraperitoneal for „in the peritoneum“). The majority of injections is done subcutaneously.

 

 

Triglycerides

 

 

type of blood fats. Can be build in the body or intaken with the food. Elevated levels of triglycerides are common at overweighed people as well as at poorly controlled diabetics

 

 

Type 1-Diabetes

 

 

diabetes with an absolute lack of insulin. People with type 1 diabetes do not produce any insulin and have therefore to inject insulin during the day

 

 

Type 2-Diabetes

 

 

diabetes with a relative lack of insulin. In the beginning enough insulin is produced but the effect on receptors decrease. Later insulin production is not sufficient and people have to be treated with oral antidiabetic drugs or insulin

 

 

UKPDS

 

 

United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study. The broadest long-term clinical trial (20 years) for type 2 diabetes. It could proof that good control of blood pressure reduces the risk of developing diabetic late complications